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清华大学的前身是清华留美预备学校,创建于1911年,是用美国退还的“庚子赔款”余额建立起来的。1923年起筹办大学部。1925年建立国学研究院,导师有王国维、梁启超、陈寅恪、赵元任,讲师李济等,主任为吴宓。在开学日,吴宓阐述国学院宗旨,说:“惟兹国学者,乃指中国学术文化之全体而言,而研究之道,尤注重正确精密之方法(即时人所谓科学方法),并取材于欧美学者研究东方语言及中国文化之成绩,此又本校研究院之异于国内之研究国学者。”王国维所开《古史新证》、梁启超《历史研究法》、陈寅恪《西人之东方学之目录学》和赵元任的《现代语言学》、《方言学》等课程均显示出借鉴西方现代科学方法重新阐释中国传统文化的鲜明特色。当时曾在国学院就读的有王力、吴其昌、刘盼遂、姜亮夫等,清华国学院于1928年终结,时间很短,但为现代中国培养了一批善于用新思想治理国学的优秀人才,在我国学术史和教育史上享有崇高的地位。

 

清华的大学部于1925年开始招收新生,1926年分设国文、西洋文学、历史、哲学、经济学、政治学、教育心理学和社会学系等系,1928年组成文学院。在教学方针上,与当时其他大学不同之点即多数系强调“中西兼重”原则,希望培养博通中外文史知识的通才。如中文系比较“注重新旧文学贯通与中外文学的结合”;外文系提出要培养“汇通东西之精神思想”的“ 博雅之士”;历史系则提出“中外历史兼重”;哲学系强调东西方哲学的相互阐释;社会学系也主张学生应有广博的基础知识。为此,各系都十分重视外国语文的教学,例如中文系必修的外文课程约占全部必修课总额的五分之一(联大以后有所削弱)。而学习外国语言及文化之目的则在于学习“西洋的方法”来“整理国故”,或创立新学派。与这种教学方针相适应,教师的学术研究也表现出现代释古学的种种特色:如中文系主任朱自清强调兼取“京派与海派之长”追求宏观上的开阔与微观上的谨严,代表作是《诗言志辨》。闻一多以立论上的大胆与考证上的绵密见长,对上古神话研究及诗经、楚辞的研究既富于历史感又具有鲜明的时代感。其它如杨树达的汉字研究,俞平伯的红楼梦研究,许维遹的管子、尚书研究和浦江清、余冠英的研究都显示出开阔与谨严相结合的特色。外文系的突出实绩是开拓了比较文学的教学与研究的先河。吴宓的《中西诗之比较》、瑞恰慈的《文学批评》、《比较文学》课程都对中国比较文学研究具有里程碑意义,特别是吴宓的《文学与人生》,在中西文化的“相互阐释”方面有突破性贡献。该系所培养的学生如吴达元、赵萝蕤、季羡林、李赋宁等均为比较文学界之中坚,特别是钱钟书,以其《谈艺录》和《管锥编》将现代释古学提到了新的高度。哲学系强调横切面的哲学问题的研究,强调论证、逻辑和概念分析,这些都是中国传统所缺的,其中金岳霖的《逻辑》、《论道》和冯友兰的《贞元六书》、《中国哲学史》影响较大;历史学系在继承国学院传统倡导“新史学”的目标下,陈寅恪的《唐代政治史述编》和《随唐制度渊源略论稿》、张荫麟的上古史研究、雷海宗的通史研究、吴晗的明史研究都在学术界具有较大影响。研究者的见解和观点尽管有所不同,但都注意对某一历史现象找出它所以如此的时代和社会的原因。概括地说,清华文学院继承和发展国学院时期的优良学风,在运用近代科学思想和方法阐释中国传统文化方面既能做到视野开阔,又不大而空;既立论谨严,又不拘泥细节,力求对中国历史、文化现象做出既符合当时情况又富于时代色彩的解释。

 

清华文科师生有着优良的爱国、进步的革命传统。早在五四运动时,闻一多曾贴出岳飞的《满江红》,以号召清华学子外抗强权,内除国贼;1926年“三·一八”抗议日本侵略者炮轰大沽口事件中英勇牺牲的韦杰三烈士系中文系学生;震撼全国的“一二·九”运动中的领导人与骨干蒋南翔、姚依林等均系文学院学生。在西南联大时期和解放战争时期的学生运动中,清华文科师生都为争取民族独立和和平民主发挥了先锋作用与桥梁作用,有些同志献出了自己的宝贵生命。闻一多拍案而起,横眉怒对反动派的手枪,宁肯倒下,不肯屈服;朱自清一身重病,宁肯饿死,不领美国救济粮,显示了中国知识分子不屈的斗争精神和崇高的民族气节。闻一多、朱自清是中国现代知识分子的榜样,也是我校文科师生的光荣和骄傲。

 

19521978年,伴随国家院系调整,清华大学成为一所多科性工科大学,文科各系分别并入其他院校及学术研究机构。

 

虽然清华大学的文科从建制上一度中断,但前辈学者开创的优良学风和深厚人文底蕴仍然弦歌不辍、薪火相传、历久而弥新。1978年以来,清华大学先后恢复和建立了外语系、社会科学系、中国语言文学系、思想文化研究所、教育研究所、科学技术与社会研究室和艺术教育中心,在此基础上199312月组建人文社会科学学院。经过复建以来的建设和发展,学院涵盖文学、历史学、哲学、法学、经济学和管理学等全部文科学科门类,学科发展取得了令人瞩目的成绩,成为体现学校文科发展水平尤其是基础文科实力的重要机构。

 

20127月,人文社会科学学院撤销,成立人文学院和社会科学学院。

 

清华大学建设综合性、研究型、开放式的世界一流大学,文科具有不可或缺的重要地位和作用。在清华大学的总体发展中,提出了加快发展文科的指导思想。人文学院努力从清华大学在国家的地位以及建设世界一流大学的整体目标出发,适应新世纪的经济建设与社会进步对人才培养和人文学术的要求;遵循“古今贯通、中西融会、文理渗透、综合创新”的学术范式,打好基础,突出应用,注重交叉,形成特色;按照“有所为,有所不为”的原则,有重点分阶段地进行学科建设。

 

学院的学科专业涉及文学、历史学、哲学等文科学科门类。有6个博士、硕士学位授予权的一级学科,1个硕士专业学位授予权的学科;4个本科专业:人文科学实验班(含汉语言文学、历史学、哲学专业方向)、英语专业、日语专业、汉语言文学专业;4个博士后流动站:哲学、中国语言文学、历史学、外国语言文学;1个国家重点学科:专门史;3个北京市重点学科。学院现有教工180余人,其中教授75人、副教授72人、讲师16人。目前在读本科生1200余人,其中留学生约800人;硕士生约210人、博士生约210人;在站博士后20余人;每年在对外汉语中心学习中国语言文化的外国学生有1000余人。

 

学院现有41中心20余个研究机构,学院承担着《清华大学学报》(哲社版)核心刊物的编辑出版任务。近年来,学院共承担包括国家社科基金项目重大招标项目、教育部人文社科重大课题攻关项目、国家科技支撑计划等在研项目200余项,这些科硏项目在国家经济、社会、文化建设中发挥了积极作用。近五年来,学院教师共出版各类著作200多部,发表论文上千篇,科硏成果多次获得教育部、北京市等各类奖项。

 

学院积极开展国内外学术合作和交流活动,与北美、欧洲、亚洲等许多国家和港澳台地区有广泛的学术交流和项目合作,近年来组织举办国际学术会议100余次。为适应社会需求,学院设有培训部,进行学历、非学历等继续教育培训;每年学院受国家部委、地方政府及企事业单位委托,在校内外举办数十期研究生课程班、高级研讨班、各类培训班,受教育人数在1000人以上。

 

进入新世纪以来,国际、国内形势发生了深刻的变化,给人文学科带来难得发展机遇的同时,也提出了严峻的挑战和更高的要求。建设一流的文科是清华大学建设世界一流大学的重要组成部分,清华新百年伊始新成立的人文学院从清华大学建设世界一流大学的整体目标出发,适应新时期对学术研究和人才培养的要求,致力于传承优秀传统,把握时代和社会发展的新契机,以更加宽广的视野和博大的胸襟开拓创新,全面推进学院的学术研究、队伍建设、人才培养等方面的工作,为经济和社会发展提供人才、思想和智力支持,力争在影响时代潮流和引领人类文明发展方向上作出应有的贡献。

 

 

Founded in 1911 with part of the Gengzi indemnity returned by the U.S.A., Tsinghua University was initially a prep school whose students were to study in the U.S.A. after graduation. The University was founded in 1923, and the Institute of Chinese Studies in 1925, whose faculty included the Four Tutors, Wang Guowei, Liang Qichao, Chen Yinke, and Zhao Yuanren, and a couple of lecturers such as Li Ji and so on. Wu Mi was Director of the Institute, who had made clear the aims of the Institute in its cradle, "What I mean by Chinese studies refers to the entire Chinese scholarship and culture, and the way of research puts emphasis on the right and precise method, which is what people of today call scientific method. It also draws materials from European and American scholarship in Oriental languages and Chinese culture, which is where our Institute differs from other scholars in Chinese studies at home.' Wang Guowei's course "Ancient History and New Evidence," Liang Qichao’s "Method of Historiography," Chen Yinke’s "Bibliography of Western Sinology," Zhao Yuanren's "Modern Linguistics" and "Dialectology," and the like are all characterized by applying modern scientific methods of the West to the interpretation of traditional Chinese culture. At that time, Wang Li, Wu Qichang, Liu Pansui, Jiang Liangfu, and so on were students at the Institute. The Institute was closed in 1928, but in spite of that, it had educated a group of outstanding scholars who excelled at using new thinking in Chinese studies, and are in the front positions in the history of Chinese scholarship and education.

 

The University at Tsinghua began to enroll students in 1925, and in 1926, the Departments of Chinese Language and Literature, Foreign Languages, History, Philosophy (changed to Philosophy and Psychology in the time of the National Southwest Associated University), and Sociology were set up, and the School of Literary Studies was founded in 1928.

It followed a different education principle from other universities, and many departments stressed the importance of "studying both the Chinese and the Western," in the hope of bringing out graduates with a superior mastery of Chinese and foreign culture and history. For instance, the Chinese Department "gave emphasis to studying both the old and new literature, and Chinese and foreign literature," and the Department of Foreign Languages aimed to cultivate "gentlemen of erudition and distinction" "with a thorough knowledge of the Western mind," and the History Department "highlighted a balanced study in both Chinese and foreign history," and the Department of Philosophy underscored an interpretative relationship of mutual illumination between Eastern and Western philosophy, and the Department of Sociology insisted that its students have a broad knowledge. All the departments put foreign languages and culture at the center of their curriculum. For instance, one fifth of the required courses of the Chinese Department were courses in foreign languages and culture. The aim of studying foreign languages and culture lay in studying the "Western method” and using it on the redaction of ancient Chinese books, or starting a new school. In accordance with this education principle, the faculty's research reflected the characteristics of this modern hermeneutics in the interpretation of the ancient. For instance, Professor Zhu Ziqing, whose main work is On "Poetry Speaks One's Intention",  insisted on learning the best of the Beijing school and the Shanghai school alike to seek a broad perspective as well as the exactitude of textual criticism. Wen Yiduo was bold in raising questions, but conscientious in answering them, and his study of the mythology in archaic times, the Book of Poetry and Chuci is a blend of rich historical consciousness and the sense of urgencies in his day. The same is true of Yang Shuda's study of the Chinese language, Yu Pingbo's study of The Dream of the Red Chamber, Xu Weiyu’s study of Guanzi and Book of Documents, as well as Pu Jiangqing’s and Yu Guanying's works. The major achievement of the Department of Foreign Languages is to have started the teaching and research in comparative literature in China. The courses offered in the Department, such as Wu Mi's A Comparison of Chinese and Western Poetry, I. Richards's Literary Criticism and Comparative Literature, have become famous landmarks in the field of comparative literature in China, and particularly, Wu Mi's Literature and Human Conditions has made breakthrough contributions to the method of mutual illumination between Chinese and Western cultures. Graduates from the Department, such as Wu Dayuan, Zhao Luorui, Ji Xianlin, Li Funing, and so on have become the main force in the field of comparative literature, and a special mention should be made of Qian Zhongshu, who has elevated the modern Chinese hermeneutics to a new height with his On the Arts and Guan Zhui bian. The Department of Philosophy gave priority to a synchronical approach to philosophical issues, and foregrounded proof, logic, and conceptual analysis, which are where the Chinese tradition is weak. The most influential works are Jin Yuelin’s Logic and On the Way, and Feng Youlan's Six Books of the Zhenyuan Period and History of Chinese Philosophy. Pleading for New Historiography, the History Department inherited the legacy of the Institute of Chinese Studies and has brought out such important studies as Chen Yinque's A Political History of the Tang Dynasty and A Brief Study of the Origins of the Political Systems in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Zhang Yinlin's studies of the history of archaic times, Lei Zonghai's study of the general history of China, Wu Han's study of the history of the Ming dynasty. Different as they were in their perspectives and conclusions, they did not fail to probe into the historical phenomenon to find out causes that were deeply rooted in its time and society. To sum up, Tsinghua School of Literary Studies has creatively inherited the splendid scholarship formed in the time of the Institute of Chinese Studies and, in its application of modern scientific thinking and methodology to the interpretation of traditional Chinese culture, it has never shied away from seeking a broad and solid perspective. It has shown prudence in establishing the thesis, but never allowing itself to be bogged down by pointless details, and it strove to provide an interpretation of Chinese history and cultural phenomena that faithfully reflected the reality and at one and the same time spoke for their time. Famous scholars who have taught in the School of Literary Studies include Wen Yiduo, Chen Yinke, Zhu Ziqing, Liu Wendian, Yu Pingbo, Pu Jiangqing, Wang Li, Yang Shuda, Chen Mengjia, Wang Yao(Department of Chinese Language and Literature); Wu Mi, Wang Wenxian, Ye Gongchao, Zhai Mengsheng, Winter, Ivor Armstrong Richards, William Empson, Qian Zhongshu (Department of Foreign Languages); Chen Yinke, Lei Haizong, Jiang Tingfu, Liu Chonghong, Zhang Yinlin, Wu Han, Zhou Yiliang(Department of History); Jin Yuelin, Feng Youlan, Shen Youding, He Lin, Zhang Dainian(Department of Philosophy); Chen Da, Pan Guangdan, Fei Xiaotong(Department of Sociology), Famous scholars, writers, and artists who attended the School of Literary Studies include Qian Zhongshu, Yang Jiang, Ji Xianlin, Zhao Luorui, Wang Yao, Lin Geng, Ji Zhenhuan, Fei Xiaotong, Cao Yu, He Zhaowu, Li Xueqin, Fu Xuanzong, He Bingdi, Duanmu Hongliang, Wu Dayuan, Wu Zuxiang. 

 

The faculty and students in the humanities and social sciences at Tsinghua inherit a superior revolutionary tradition of patriotism and progress. As early as the May Fourth Movement, Wen Yiduo posted a ci poem "The River Is Red" by Yue Fei to call upon the students at Tsinghua to fight against the hegemonic power from abroad and expunge traitors at home. Wei Jiesan, a student in the Chinese Department, died a heroic death in the March 18 protest against the Japanese invaders who had fired cannons at Dagukou in 1926; Jiang Nanxiang and Yao Yilin, two students in the School of Literary Studies, were among the leaders in the December 9 Protest that had shaken the entire nation. Actively participating in the students movements during the period of the National Southwest Associated University and the Liberation War, the faculty and students in the humanities and social sciences at Tsinghua have played a pioneering role in the fight for the independence, peace, and democracy of our nation. Some of them sacrificed their precious lives. Wen Yiduo rose to his feet in anger, staring down the enemy who was holding a pistol at him, and would rather die than give in. Zhu Ziqing, seriously ill, chose to starve to death rather than take the American relief food. They all showed the unbending fighting spirit and noble patriotism of Chinese intellectuals. They have set good examples for contemporary Chinese intellectuals, and are the pride and honor of the faculty and students of our university. 

 

From 1952 to 1978, Tsinghua University was a polytechnic institution as a result of the 1952 restructuring for higher education in China and its humanities departments being sent off to other universities and research institutions.

 

Although the humanities programs were suspended for this period of time, the humanistic tradition and superior scholarship have persevered and remain as strong as before. Since 1978, Tsinghua University has either restored or founded the Departments of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Sociology, Chinese Language and Literature, the Institute of the Humanities, the Institute of Education, the Institute of Science, Technology and Society, and the Art Center. In December 1993, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences was formed, covering the entire range of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including literature, history, philosophy, law, economics, management, and so forth. The attainment has transformed the School into an important institution to demonstrate what the university has achieved in the humanities and social sciences, and particularly, in the humanities.

 

The School was closed in July 2012, however, and in the meantime the School of Humanities and the School of Social Sciences were founded.

In Tsinghua’s efforts to build itself into a comprehensive and open world-class research university, the humanities and social sciences plays an indispensable role. For the university, to accelerate the development of its programs in the humanities and social sciences is high on its agenda. Concentrating on the general goals of the university, the School of Humanities is trying very hard to fit its programs to the pace of economic and social progress in the new century. It adheres to the maxim:“Be conversant with the ancient and the modern, and versed in the Chinese and the Western; conjoin the humanities and sciences to innovate and make a difference.” The top priorities it upholds in the research and teaching are a solid foundation, practice and applications, and interdisciplinary blending. The research programs in the School cover many subjects of study, but it maintains the integrity of its programs and will have more tier-1 and tier-2 programs step by step.

 

The disciplines in the School of Humanities include literature, history, philosophy, and the subjects they cover. Currently, the School has 6 Tier-1 Ph.D. and M.A. Degree programs, 1 M.A. Degree program, 4 Bachelor's Degree programs, 4 Postdoctoral programs, 1 national key program, and 3 key programs of Beijing. There are about 180 people on its faculty and staff, including 75 full professors, 72 associate professors and 16 lecturers. The current enrollment is about 1200 undergraduates, about 200 Master’s degree students, about 210 doctoral students, and over 20 postdoctoral fellows. Additionally, there are more than 1,000 international students who come to study Chinese language and culture at its International Chinese Language and Culture Center every year.

 

The School has 4 departments, 1 center, and about 20 interdisciplinary research institutions. In recent years, the School has undertaken more than 200 research projects, most of which are National Social Sciences Fund key tender projects, Humanities and Social Sciences key projects funded by the Ministry of Education, projects in the National Science and Technology Pillar Program, and so forth. Through these research projects the School has made important contributions to the development of the economy, society and culture of the nation. In the past five years, the faculty members have published a few hundred books, over 1,000 research papers, with their research projects bringing many awards to the School from the Ministry of Education to the Municipality of Beijing. 

 

The School also actively seeks academic collaboration with institutions at home and abroad, and has set up extensive academic exchange programs with institutions in countries in North America, Europe, and Asia, and with institutions in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau, and has hosted more than 100 international academic conferences. To better serve the needs of the broad society, the School has set up a training section with degree and non-degree programs for continuing education. Every year it opens dozens of graduate classes, advanced seminars, and has trained over 1,000 people in training classes on commission of the ministries of the central government, local governments, and state and private companies. 

 

Since the beginning of the new century, there have been many profound changes on the international and national levels, which have brought to the School hard-to-get opportunities for development, while at the same time, grave challenges and higher expectations. A world-class humanities program is intrinsic to a world-class Tsinghua University, and so the new School of Humanities at Tsinghua will try its best to meet the research and education requirements of the university, to be committed to carry on the superior tradition, to grasp the new opportunities for development, to push forward its research, faculty construction, and talent cultivation in order to provide solid support for the economic and social development of our nation, to make contributions worthy of its stature and a positive impact on our times, and to lead the development of human civilization.